“Things are seldom what they seem, skim milk masquerades as cream.” – W. S. Gilbert
Mycosis fungoides (pronounced my-coh-sis fun-goyd-eez) is the most common form of a type of blood cancer called cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The meaning of Mycosis fungoides is “mushroom-like fungal disease,” which refers to mushroom fungus look of the skin in the advanced stages of this disease. Mycosis means any disease caused by a fungus (mold).
The symptoms of this disease are a red rash or patches on the skin, which are often flat and scaly that can sometimes be itchy. Patches are most commonly found on the lower abdomen, upper thighs, buttocks, and breasts. They can disappear and reappear or remain stable over time. In some affected individuals, patches progress to plaques, the next stage of mycosis fungoides.(1)
The National Cancer Institute lists Mycosis fungoides may go through the following phases:
- Premycotic phase: A scaly, red rash in areas of the body that usually are not exposed to the sun. This rash does not cause symptoms and may last for months or years. It is hard to diagnose the rash as mycosis fungoides during this phase.
- Patch phase: Thin, reddened, eczema-like rash.
- Plaque phase: Small raised bumps (papules) or hardened lesions on the skin, which may be reddened.
- Tumor phase: Tumors form on the skin. These tumors may develop ulcers and the skin may get infected.(2)
What is the cause of this blood cancer – cutaneous T-cell lymphoma called Mycosis fungoides?
What is interesting is that the current medical literature claims that this cancer which is named after a fungal disease is not actually caused by a fungus. But they do not know what the cause is today and nowhere could I locate in modern medical literature could I find a cause that would lead to an accurate diagnosis and prognosis.
The two main forms of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkinlymphoma (NHL). Lymphoma occurs when cells of the immune system called lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, grow and multiply uncontrollably. (Source: Lymphoma.org)
The disease is an unusual expression of CD4 T cells, a part of the immune system. These T cells are skin-associated, meaning that they biochemically and biologically are most related to the skin, in a dynamic manner. Mycosis fungoides is the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL).(Wikipedia)
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. T cells are critical in the development of protective immunity against a variety of microorganisms as well as the development of autoimmune disease and allergic responses.
An interesting note is that many molds and their mycotoxins such as trichothecenes are toxic to cells and have been documented to cause an unusual expression T cells.
In a 2004 study, Adoptive T-cell therapy for fungal infections in haematology patients, researchers explain the role for CD4 T cells in fungus-specific adaptive immunity is now well established and specific responses by all CD4 T-cell subsets (T helper (Th)-1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cells) have been observed. Protective immunity, correlating with production of defensins, inflammation, neutrophil recruitment and fungal clearance is observed following activation of Th1 and Th17 cells. In contrast, the activation of Th2 and regulatory T cells corresponds to inhibition of fungal clearance and immunosuppression, respectively.(3)
Trichothecenes are now recognized as having multiple inhibitory effects on eukaryote cells, including inhibition of protein, DNA and RNA synthesis, inhibition of mitochondrial function, effects on cell division and membrane effects. In animal cells, they induce apoptosis, a programmed cell death response.
The fungus Coccidioides which causes the disease coccidioidomycosis that has been connected to Mycosis fungoides, the outcome of the disease depends to a large extent on the effectiveness of the T-cell-mediated immune (CMI) response to the fungal pathogen. Immunogenicity of a 48-kDa T-cell-reactive protein (TCRP).
The antigen is expressed by parasitic cells and localized in the cytoplasm. It stimulates the proliferative response and production of gamma interferon by T cells of mice immunized with C. immitis spherules. Specific antibody reactive with the recombinant TCRP (rTCRP) was detected in sera of patients with confirmed coccidioidal infection.(4)
Another example of a mold causing an unusual expression of T cells is from Fusarium mycotoxins which cause a decreased percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. In mice orally exposed to AFB1, there is a doserelated suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (Reddy and Sharma 1989). Intoxicated mice also exhibit a decrease in splenic CD4 þ T cell number as well as in IL-2 production by splenocytes (Hatori et al. 1991; Dugyala and Sharma 1996).(5)
The history of Mycosis fungoides and how it was connected to the fungus Coccidiodes immitis
If you study the history of Mycosis fungoides, you will clearly see that it looks exactly like a fungal infection and if you research further, you can find scientists, studies, and books that tie this disease to a fungus.
The first person to have documented this disease was a medical student from Argentina named Alejandro Pasados. While he was a student at the Faculty of Medicine of Buenos Aries, he examined a soldier who had lesions all over his body and was diagnosed with fungoid mycosis. He collected material from the wounds and found spores that he identified from the mold (fungus) coccidia.(6)
Coccidioides species are dimorphic fungi with saprophytic and parasitic phases. Humans, dogs, horses, and other animals may serve as hosts. The organisms’ life cycle explains several interesting characteristics of the disease. Coccidioidomycosis is infectious, but not contagious. Nearly all infections are acquired from the environment by the inhalation of airborne arthroconidia from the soil. The organisms are considered to be potential agents of bioterrorism.(7)
Geoffrey Clough Ainsworth (9 October 1905 in Birmingham – 25 October 1998 in Derby), a British mycologist, scientific historian and author who had dedicated much of his life to the study of fungi (molds) had said that fungal diseases are amongst the oldest recognized causes of infection in humans. He wrote a popular book called the History of Mycology published in 1976 by Cabridge University. In Chapter 6, he credits Alejandro Pasados with first recording the disease coccidioidomycosis which is caused by the fungus, coccidia.
Ainsworth also said that this was the opinion of T.C. Gilchrist of John Hopkins University, Baltimore, in 1896 who named the fungus Coccidiodes immitis. In 1900, W. Ophuls and H.C. Moffit had shown that this fungus occurs in the lungs and other organs.
This is described in the book, Transactions of the American Dermatological Association, Volume 22 By American Dermatological Association.
“On June 30th, 1900, Ophuls and Moffit published a case where the pathologic histology, the abscess formation, the identity in every respect of the micro-organisms as found in the tissues were the same as in the above cases and in the case in hand, but where the striking mycosis fungoides-like lesions on the skin were lacking.
The symptom lacking was an important one, but the points of similarity, however, were so well marked that all those who studied the specimens had little doubt of the identity of this case with the others where tubers were present. Ophuls and Moffitt’s case is especially important, because they were able to carry forward the life study of the microorganism one step further than had previously been done.
In the culture tubes they noticed they repeatedly got a fungus having a delicate mycelium, and after getting this fungus, not alone from the original organs studied, but also from the organs of the inoculated animals, they then injected some of the mycelium into guinea-pigs, and caused the disease with its capsulated forms.”
The true science and the masquerading science
A study from 1995 titled, “Commentary: The Masquerades of Coccidioidomycosis,” describes what researchers call oddities, misrepresentations, and masquerades surrounding the disease, Coccidioidomycosis. The scientists in this study list several cases of people who had Valley Fever, also called coccidioidomycosis, an infection caused by the fungus Coccidioides found commonly in the U.S. Southwest but were diagnosed with tumors and cancer.
In another study in 2004, Disseminated coccidioidomycosis with cutaneous lesions clinically mimicking mycosis fungoides, researchers present another case of coccidioidomycosis masquerading as mycosis fungoides
“This report describes the second known case of disseminated coccidioidomycosis mimicking mycosis fungoides since the original description more than 100 years ago. Coccidioidomycosis should be considered in persons from an endemic area presenting with nonhealing or suspicious skin lesions. Diagnosis is established by skin biopsy and silver staining showing granulomas and classic Coccidioides immitis spherules.
Disseminated coccidioidomycosis most commonly involves the skin and can have a variety of cutaneous manifestations. The first description of a Coccidioides immitis infection in 1892 was initially diagnosed as mycosis fungoides. We present the second case of coccidioidomycosis masquerading as mycosis fungoides.”(8)
Yet again in 2006, researchers report in study titled, Mycosis fungoides with coccidioidomycosis, that a patient with mycosis fungoides and infection with Coccidioides immitis of the skin, which has not been previously reported.(9)
Mold Safe Solutions Conclusion
In this article, I went over the history of Mycosis Fungoides and how for many years it was connected to the disease, Coccidioidomycosis caused by the common soil fungus (mold) Coccidiodes immitis. I also provide research showing how people diagnosed with mycosis fungoides also have the fungal infection with Coccidioides immitis of the skin.
We also know what have been called “The Masquerades of Coccidioidomycosis” and what researchers call oddities, misrepresentations, and masquerades surrounding the disease, Coccidioidomycosis. Last but definitely not least, today it has been claimed that we do not know what causes Mycosis Fungoides, aka Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma Blood Cancer.
Based on my research, we have the smoking gun with all the marks and signs indicating the cause, but for some odd reason, the modern medical establishment refuses to examine the true history and actual evidence. It seems to be a case of what the researchers called, “oddities, misrepresentations, and masquerades surrounding the disease.”
I will leave you with a quote from David J. DiCaudo, MD, a board-certified dermatologist in Scottsdale, Arizona who said, “Coccidioidomycosis is a ‘‘great imitator’’ with protean clinical manifestations. Knowledge of the diverse cutaneous clues can be helpful in the diagnosis of this increasingly important disease.”
- U.S. National Library of Medicine
- US Cancer Institute
- Adoptive T-cell therapy for fungal infections in haematology patients
- Immunogenicity of a 48-Kilodalton Recombinant T-Cell-Reactive Protein of Coccidioides immitis
- Immunotoxicological risk of mycotoxins for domestic animals
- Adolpho Lutz – Dermatologia e Micologia – v.1, Livro 3 By Jaime L. Benchimol, Magali Romero Sá,
- MYCOSIS FUNGOIDES, TUMOR STAGE, COEXISTENT WITH DISSEMINATED COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS
- Disseminated coccidioidomycosis with cutaneous lesions clinically mimicking mycosis fungoides
- Mycosis fungoides with coccidioidomycosis
Moe Bedard is the founder and CEO of Mold Safe Solutions. A full-service Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) company specializing in property water damage, mold inspections, consultations, and mold remediation. If you need help with a project, please call Mold Safe Solutions at 760-818-6830.